South American Spanish Dialectology

Country Summaries

Rules

Argentina

Buenos Aires porteños, Andalusian; interior cuyanos, conservative.

    Zheísmo /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ] (zheísmo) /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ] / ___ porteño, south through Patagonia and east of a line running from Córdoba to Bariloche Sheísmo /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʃ] (sheísmo) /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʃ] / ___ Buenos Aires Assibilacion de /j/ /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ], [ʝ] /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ], [ʝ] / ___ Santiago del Estero Desonorización de /r/ /r/ → [r̥] /r/ → [r̥] / ___ interior, North Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] before another consonant /s/ → [h] / ___C esto → [ˈe̞ʰto] popular speech Elisión de /r/ in infinitive /r/ → [∅] when final in infinitive /r/ → [∅] / [e], [i], [a]___ infinitive some areas, rapid speech

Bolivia

Andalusian; very early in highlands, later type brought during late colonial period elsewhere.

    Distincción entre /ʎ/ y /ʝ/ /ʎ/ ≠ /ʝ/ /ʎ/ ≠ /ʝ}/ halla [haʎa] ≠ haya [aja] Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] when syllable final /s/ → [h] / ___$ llanos Desbuccalización de /x/ /x/ → [h] /x/ → [h] / ___ Asibilación de /r/ /r/ → [ʐ] /r/ → [ʐ] / ___ antiplano Reducción de vocales V → [∅] (vowel reduction), in the unstressed syllable, following or preceeding primary stress, is very common V → [∅] / [+stress]___ OR ___[+stress] Potsí (for Potosí), ofsina (for oficina), cochs (for coches) Elisión de oclusiva dental sonora /ado/ → ['ao] /ado/ → ['ao] / ___ llanos

Chile

    Alveolarización de /t̪ʃ/ /t̪ʃ/ → [t͡s] /t̪͡ʃ/ → [t͡s] / ___ Palatalización de /x/ /x/ → [ç] before e and i /x/ → [ç] / ___[e] OR [i] Asibilación de /r/ /r/ → [ʐ] /r/ → [ʐ] / ___ Asibilación de /tɾ/ /tɾ/ → [tʐ] /tɾ/ → [tʐ] / ___ Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] /s/ → [h] / ___ Bilabialización de /f/ /f/ → [ɸ] /f/ → [ɸ] / ___ fabla → [ɸabla] Fricatización de /j/ (yeísmo) /ʎ/ → [ʝ] (yeísmo) /ʎ/ → [ʝ] / ___ cayó, calló → [kaˈjo] Palatalización de las oclusivas sordas /k/, /ɡ/, /x/ palatalized before front vowel /k/, /ɡ/, /x/ → [c], [ʝ], [ç] / ___[+vowel +front] i.e. e, i queso → [ˈceːso] guía → [ˈʝia] jinete → [çiˈn̪eːt̪e] Elisión de oclusiva dental sonora /ado/ → ['ao] /ado/ → ['ao] / ___ as in Venezuela, Cuba, Costa Rica and Colombia Desafricación de la africada alveopalatal /tʃ/ → [ʃ] /tʃ/ → [ʃ] / ___ Chile → [ˈʃiːle] lower-class Alveolarización de /t̪ʃ/ /tʃ/ → [t͡s], [t̪ˢ] /tʃ/ → [t͡s], [t̪ˢ] / ___ upper-class Desbuccalización de las fricativas velares [h]+[β̞], [h]+[ɣ̞] → [f], [x], after /s/ → [h] [hβ̞], [hɣ̞] → [f], [x] / ___ after /s/ → [h] resbaló → [rɛfaˈloː]; rasgó → [raˈxoː] Asimilación total de /ɾ/ /ɾn/ → [nn] /ɾn/ → [nn] / ___ jornada → [xonˈn̪aː] Vocalización de /b/ /bl/ → [ul] /bl/ → [ul] / ___ inolvidable → [in̪olˈβ̞jaːule]

Colombia

    Desbucalización de /x/ inicial /x/ → [h] /x/ → [h] / ___ Falta de desbucalización de /x/ inicial /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] (occlusive) after any consonant or after a semivowel /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] [+occlusive, -spirant] / C___ OR G___ verde → ['βerde], not ['βerðe]

Eastern Cordillera

    Asibilación de /r/ /r/, /tɾ/, -/ɾ/ → [ʐ], [tʐ], -[ʐ] (by assibilation) /r/, /tɾ/, -/ɾ/ → [ʐ], [tʐ], -[ʐ] by assibilation / ___ Diferencia entre /ʎ/ y /ʝ/ /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ distinguished /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ distinguished

Nariño

Similar to neighboring highland Ecuador.

    Reducción de vocales V → [∅] (vowel reduction), in unstressed syllables V[+vowel -stress] → [∅] / ___ partes → [parts], etc. Falta de elisión de oclusiva dental sonora /'ado/ ↛ ['ao] NOT(/'ado/ → ['ao] / ___) /s/ sibilante y estriado /s/ apicodental, tensely grooved, and strongly sibilant (cf. highland Mexico and Bolivia, and to some extent Peru) /s/ apicodental, tensely grooved, and strongly sibilant (cf. highland Mexico and Bolivia, and to some extent Peru) Sonorización de la fricativa /s/ /s/ → [z] (word final before vowel, and even intervocalically, sometimes) /s/ → [z] / {___#V} OR {V___V sometimes}

Antioquia

    Apicoalveolarización de /s/ /s/ → [ʃ] (apicoalveolar) /s/ → [ʃ] / ___ in many speakers Africación de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ so tense it is heard as an affricate [ɟ͡ʝ], intervocalically /ʝ/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] / V___V

Cauca-Valle

"Standard" Spanish.

    Falta de asibilación de vibrante simple /r/ not assibilated NOT(/ɾ/ → [ʐ] OR [ʂ] /___$||) Falta de apicoalveolarización de /s/ /s/ not apicoalveolar NOT(/s/ → [ʃ] apicoalveolar ) Falta de diferencia entre /ʎ/ y /ʝ/ /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ not distinguished /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ not distinguished Consonantismo fuerte lacks weak consonantismo of the coasts lacks weak consonantismo of the coasts Bilabialización de /n/ en final de palabra /n/ → [m] (word final before a pause or a vowel) /n/ → [m] / ___#|| OR ___#V pan → [pam]

Coastal Colombia

Similar to Caribbean.

    Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] or [∅] /s/ → [h] or [∅] Velarización de /n/ en final de sílaba /n/ → [ŋ] when word-final before a pause or a vowel /n/ → [ŋ] when word-final before a pause or a vowel Nivelación de /r/ y /l/ /r/ and /l/ → [r], [l] when word final /r/ and /l/ → [r], [l] when word final lateralization of /r/ and vibrantization of /l/? Palatalización de /tʃ/ /tʃ/ → [tʲ] /tʃ/ → [tʲ]

Costa Rica

    Velarización de /t/ en diminutivos /t/ → [k] in diminutives /t/ → [k] in diminutives momentito → [momen'tiko] also common in Colombia, Cuba Asibilación de /r/ /r/, /tɾ/, -/ɾ/ → [ʐ], [tʐ], -[ʐ] (by assibilation) /r/, /tɾ/, -/ɾ/ → [ʐ], [tʐ], -[ʐ] / ___ except in Guanacaste and on Pacific coast Velarizacion de /n/ /n/ → [ŋ] when word final before pause or vowel /n/ → [ŋ] when word final before pause or vowel en amor → [eŋa'mor] Elisión de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ weakens or disappears when intervocalic /ʝ/ weakens or disappears when intervocalic Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] /s/ → [h] Guanacaste, Pacific coast Aproximatización de vibrante /r/ → [ɹ] /r/ → [ɹ]

Cuba

    Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] or [∅] /s/ → [h] or [∅] disfrutar → ['difrutar]; fresco → ['freco]; despues → [de'pue] Velarización de /n/ en fin de sílaba /n/ → [ŋ] when word-final before a pause or a vowel, or simply nasalization of the preceeding vowel /n/ → [ŋ] when word-final before a pause or a vowel, or simply nasalization of the preceeding vowel Desonorización de /r/ /r/ → [r̥] /r/ → [r̥] Desafricación de la africada alveopalatal /tʃ/ → [ʃ] /tʃ/ → [ʃ] Lateralización de vibrante múltiple /r/ → -[l] when word-final /r/ → -[l] when word-final Elisión de oclusiva dental sonora /ado/ → ['ao] /ado/ → ['ao] as in Venezuela, Cuba, Costa Rica and Colombia Velarización de /t/ en diminutivos /t/ → [k] in diminutives /t/ → [k] in diminutives momentito → [momen'tiko] also common in Colombia, Cuba

Dominican Republic

    Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] or [∅] when syllable final /s/ → [h] or [∅] when syllable final Desbucalización de /x/ /x/ → [h] /x/ → [h] Velarización de /n/ /n/ → [ŋ] when word-final before a pause or a vowel /n/ → [ŋ] when word-final before a pause or a vowel Fricatización de /j/ (yeísmo) /ʎ/ → [ʝ] /ʎ/ → [ʝ] Vocalización de vibrante simple /ɾ/ → semivowel /ɾ/ → semivowel carne → ['kaine] in the north Lateralización de vibrante simple /ɾ/ → [l] /ɾ/ → [l] carne → ['kalne] Santo Domingo Asimilación total de vibrante simple /ɾ/ → doubling of consonent /ɾ/ → doubling of consonent carne → ['kanne] Desonorización de /r/ /r/ → [r̥] /r/ → [r̥] as in Cuba Uvulación y desonorización de /r/ /r/ → [ʀ̥] /r/ → [ʀ̥] tierra → ['tjeʀ̥a] extreme Southeast

Ecuador

Division between Costa and Sierra. Coast has usual features of costeño Spanish.

    Falta de desbuccalización de /s /s/ ↛ [h] or [∅] when syllable final; pronounced with deliberate tenseness /s/ ↛ [h] or [∅] when syllable final; pronounced with deliberate tenseness serrano, as in Mexico, Bolivia, Peru Reducción de vocales V → [∅] (vowel reduction), in unstressed syllables V → [∅] / ___ in unstressed syllables oficina → [of'sina]; accidentes → [aksi'dents]; pase usted → [pas'sted] serrano Asibilación de /ʎ/ /ʎ/ → [ʒ] /ʎ/ → [ʒ] valla → ['βaʒa]; opposed to /j/ = [j] central core Sonorización de la fricativa /s/ /s/ → [z] when word final before vowel /s/ → [z] when word final before vowel las aguas → [laz 'aɣwas] central core; almost unique in America Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] or [∅] when syllable final /s/ → [h] or [∅] when syllable final lowlands Multiplicación de vibrante simple /ɾ/ → [r] /ɾ/ → [r] lowlands Elisión de oclusiva dental sonora /ado/ → ['ao] /ado/ → ['ao] lowlands

El Salvador

Phonology lies between the highland conservatism of Mexico, Colombia, and the Andes, and the lowland "relaxed" trends of coastal Spanish America.

    Falta de spirantización de oclusivas sonoras /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] (occlusive) after any consonant or after a semivowel /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] occlusive / CG___ verde → ['βerde], not ['βerðe] Desbucalización de /x/ /x/ → [h] /x/ → [h] Elisión de fricativas /x/ → [∅] intervocally in emphatic expressions /x/ → [∅] intervocally in emphatic expressions pendejo → [pen'deo]; México → ['meiko] Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] or [θ] when syllable final /s/ → [h] or [θ] when syllable final Fricatización de /j/ (yeísmo) /ʎ/ → [ʝ] (yeísmo) /ʎ/ → [ʝ]

Guatemala

Resembles Costa Rican more than El Salvadoran.

    Asibilación de /r/ /r/, /tɾ/, -/ɾ/ → [ʐ], [tʐ], -[ʐ] (by assibilation) /r/, /tɾ/, -/ɾ/ → [ʐ], [tʐ], -[ʐ] / ___ Desbucalización de /x/ /x/ → [h] /x/ → [h] Elisión de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ weakens or disappears when intervocalic /ʝ/ weakens or disappears when intervocalic capilla → [ka'pia] /s/ sibilante y estriado /s/ tensely grooved and strongly sibilant (cf. highland Mexico and Andes) /s/ tensely grooved and strongly sibilant (cf. highland Mexico and Andes)

Honduras

    Falta de spirantización de oclusivas sonoras /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] (occlusive) after any consonant or after a semivowel /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] occlusive / CG___ verde → ['βerde], not ['βerðe] Elisión de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ weakens or disappears when intervocalic /ʝ/ → [∅] / V___V capilla → [ka'pia] Desbucalización de /x/ /x/ → [h] /x/ → [h] / ___ Bilabialización de /f/ /f/ → [ɸ] /f/ → [ɸ] most of population Lateralización de /ɾ/ /ɾ/ → [l] when syllable final /ɾ/ → [l] / ___$ some areas in interior Vibrantización de /l/ /l/ → [ɾ] when syllable final /l/ → [ɾ] / ___$ some areas in interior Velarizacion de /n/ /n/ → [ŋ] when word final /n/ → [ŋ] / ___# en amor → [eŋa'mor] Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] before another consonant /s/ → [h] / ___C esto → [ˈe̞ʰto] Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] when word initial after a vowel /s/ → [h] / V#___ la semana → [la'hemana] many areas Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] when intervocalic within a word /s/ → [h] / V___V presidente → [prehi'ðente] many areas Dentalización de /s/ /s/ → [θ] /s/ → [θ] some speakers

Mexico

Intonation, tendency to lengthen the articulation of /s/, general preference for the consonant over the vowel.

    Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] → [∅] /s/ → [h] → [∅] Abrimiento de las vocales medias /e/ in closed syllable more open than the peninsular vowel /e/ in closed syllable more open than the peninsular vowel Reducción de vocales V → [∅] (vowel reduction), in the unstressed syllable, following or preceeding primary stress, is very common V → [∅] / [+vowel +stressed]___ OR ___[+vowel +stressed] trastos → [ˈtɾasts]; pesos, pesas, peces → [ˈpesᵊs]; pastas, pastes, pastos → [ˈpasts] Asimilación de /x/ /x/ (jota) prepalatal or postpalatal depending on vocalic environment /x/ (jota) prepalatal or postpalatal depending on vocalic environment Desbucalización de /x/ /x/ → [h] /x/ → [h] / ___ Southern Coasts Uvularización de /x/ /x/ → [χ] /x/ → [χ] / ___ Oaxaca, Mayan influence Nivelicación de /ʎ/ y /ɣ/ /ʎ/ and /ɣ/ leveled to one phoneme /ʎ/ and /ɣ/ leveled to one phoneme — [ɣ]? Elisión de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ weakens or disappears when intervocalic /ʝ/ → [∅] / V___V bella → [beja] capilla → [ka'pia]; sometimes becomes [ʒ] Assibilacion de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ → [ʒ] when intervocalic /ʝ/ → [ʒ] / V___V caballo → [kaβ'aʒo] Oaxaca, elsewhere Velarización de /n/ /n/ → [ŋ] before a pause or an initial vowel in following word /n/ → [ŋ] / ___|| OR ___#V Southern Mexico, Yucatán Fricativación de /r/ /r/ → [z̺] /r/ → [z̺] / ___ uncommon, perhaps attitudinal Retroflexión de /ɾ/ /ɾ/ has retroflex variant [ɽ] /ɾ/ → [ɽ] / ___ Yucatán Voiceless alveolar affricate [t͡s] and lateral alveolar affricate [t͡ɬ] [t͡s], [t͡ɬ] due to influence from local languages like Nahuatl [t͡s], [t͡ɬ] due to influence from local languages like Nahuatl tlapalería → [t͡ɬapaleˈɾia]; Xola → [ˈʃola] Desafricación de la africada alveopalatal /tʃ/ → [ʃ] /tʃ/ → [ʃ] / ___ Northern Western Mexico, and variants influenced by Mayan languages

Nicaragua

    Elisión de oclusiva dental sonora /d/ → [∅] when intervocalic in many contexts /d/ → [∅] / V___V Desbucalización de /x/ /x/ → [h] /x/ → [h] / ___ Elisión de fricativas /x/ → [∅] when intervocalic, especially between non-front vowels /x/ → [∅] / V___Vespecially between non-front vowels trabajo → [tra'βao] Elisión de /ʝ/ /ʝ/ → [∅] when intervocalic with /e/ and /i/ /ʝ/ → [∅] / ___[+front + vowel] /e/ OR /i/ gallina → [ga'ina]; sello → ['seo]; calle → ['cae] Diptongos hiper-corregidos /i/, /e/ → [ij], [ej] (hypercorrection) /i/, /e/ → [ij], [ej] / ___ María → [ma'rija]; vea → ['veja] Falta de spirantización de oclusivas sonoras /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] (occlusive) after any non-nasal consonant /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] occlusive / [-nasal +consonant]___ algo → ['algo], not ['alɣo]; alba → ['alba]; arde → ['arde] Velarizacion de /n/ /n/ → [ŋ] when word final at end of syntagma /n/ → [ŋ] / ___# muy bien or before vowel bien hecho Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] or [∅] when syllable final or word final /s/ → [h] → [∅] / ___$ very widespread in all but most formal contexts Reducción de vibrante múltiple /r/ → [ɾ] /r/ → [ɾ] / ___ speakers for whom Spanish is a second language Aproximatización de vibrantes /ɾ/, /r/ → [ɹ] /ɾ/, /r/ → [ɹ] / ___ speakers for whom Spanish is a second language

Panama

    Desafricación de la africada alveopalatal /tʃ/ → [ʃ] /tʃ/ → [ʃ] / ___ muchacho → [muʃaʃo] especially when not word-initial Panama City; less educated speakers Elisión de oclusiva dental sonora /d/ → [∅] when intervocalic /d/ → [∅] / V___V Desonorización en fin de sintagma /d/ → [t] or most often [∅] at end of syntagma /d/ → [t] → [∅] / ___# Velarización de /n/ /n/ → [ŋ] when word final at end of syntagma /n/ → [ŋ] / ___# muy bien or before vowel bien hecho Elisión de consonantes líquidas /ɾ/, /l/ → [∅] when syllable final, especially /ɾ/ at end of infinitives (/r/ more so than /l/) /ɾ/, /l/ → [∅] / ___$ especially /ɾ/ at end of infinitives (/r/ more so than /l/) lower classes, countryside Desbuccalización de consonantes líquidas /ɾ/, /l/ → [h] (or less frequently [∅]) before a consonant (/r/ more so than /l/) /ɾ/, /l/ → [h] / ___C /r/ more so than /l/ lower classes, countryside Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] or [∅] when syllable final or word final /s/ → [h] → [∅] / ___$ uniform except in some careful, professional speech Vibrantización de oclusiva dental /d/ → [ɾ] when intervocalic /d/ → [ɾ] / V___V adobe → [aɾobe] afro-antillanos Falta de spirantización de oclusivas sonoras /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] (occlusive) after any consonant or after a semivowel /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] occlusive / CG___ verde → ['βerde], not ['βerðe] afro-antillanos

Paraguay

    Falta de fricatización de /j/ (yeísmo) /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ distinguished /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ distinguished Africación de /ʎ/ /ʎ/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] when intervocalic /ʎ/ → [ɟ͡ʝ] / V___V frequently Alveolarización de los grupos de oclusiva dental + vibrante /tr/ → alveolarized /tr/ → [dʒ] Is [dʒ] the alveolarized form of /tr/? Asibilación de vibrantes /r/, /ɾ/ ↛ [ʐ] NOT(/r/, /ɾ/ → [ʐ]) Elisión de consonante en final de palabra C → [∅] in word final position C → [∅] / ___# mostly Velarización de oclusiva dental /t/, /d/ → [tᵞ], [dᵞ] /t/, /d/ → [tᵞ], [dᵞ] / ___ frequency unclear Desonorización de oclusiva dental /d/ → [t] (or sometimes /ɾ/) when syntagma-final /d/ → [t] OR sometimes /ɾ/ / ___+ amistad → [amistat] Elisión de oclusivas dental y bilabial sonoras /b/, /d/ → [∅] when intervocalic /b/, /d/ → [∅] / V___V Labiodentalización de /b/ /b/ → [v] (including when word-initial) /b/ → [v] / ____ including #___ Palatalización de /x/ /x/ → [ç] /x/ → [ç] / ___ Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] when syllable-final and word-final /s/ → [h] / ___# in almost all cases Elisión de fricativas /s/ → [∅] when syntagma-final /s/ → [∅] / ___+ mostly Velarización de /n/ /n/ → [ŋ] /n/ → [ŋ] / ___ only sporadically Misterio Linski C#V → C[ʔ]V C#V → C[ʔ]V Huh?

Peru

    Falta de fricatización de /j/ (yeísmo) /ʎ/ ≠ [ʝ] NOT(/ʎ/ → [ʝ] / ___) highlands of the south, Cuzco, Puno Fricatización de /j/ (yeísmo) /ʎ/ → [ʝ] /ʎ/ → [ʝ] / ___ highlands of the north, especially among urban, well-educated class Velarización de /n/ /n/ → [ŋ] /n/ → [ŋ] / ___ highlands Desafricación de la africada alveopalatal /tʃ/ → [ʃ] /tʃ/ → [ʃ] / ___ sometimes Asibilación de vibrante simple /r/ → [ʐ] /r/ → [ʐ] / ___ Asibilación de /r/ /r/ → [ʒ] /r/ → [ʒ] / ___ mirar → [miʒaʒ] south, from Cuzco to Puno Reducción de vocales V → [∅] (vowel reduction), in the unstressed syllable, following or preceeding primary stress, is very common V → [∅] / [+stress]___ OR ___[+stress] Potsí (for Potosí), ofsina (for oficina), cochs (for coches) Elisión de oclusivas sonoras entre vocales /b/, /d/, /g/, /y/ → [∅] entre vocales /b/, /d/, /g/, /y/ → [∅] /V ___V trabajo → [tra'ajo]; cansada→ [kans'aa] mantequilla → [mante'kia]; rodilla → [rod'ia]; brillo → [br'io] Cuzco; strong tendency in Lima Falta de desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ ↛ [h] NOT(/s/ → [h])

Puerto Rico

    Desbucalización de /x/ /x/ → [h] /x/ → [h] / ___ Velarización de /n/ /n/ → [ŋ] when word final /n/ → [ŋ] / ___# Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] or [∅] when syllable final /s/ → [h] → [∅] / ___$ Lateralización de vibrante /r/ → [l] when syllable final (lambdacismo) /r/ → [l] / ___$ verdad → [βelda] 30% in San Juan; lower classes, rural speakers check: /r/ or /ɾ/? Falta de spirantización de oclusivas sonoras /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] (occlusive) after any consonant or after a semivowel /b/, /d/, /g/ → [b], [d], [g] occlusive / CG___ verdad → [bel'da] tendancy Palatalización de /tʃ/ /tʃ/ → [tj] /tʃ/ → [tj] / ___ noche → [notje] except parts of southwest Uvulación y desonorización de /r/ /r/ → [ʀ̥] /r/ → [ʀ̥] / ___ tierra → ['tjeʀ̥a] practically all of the country

United States


Uraguay

    Zheísmo and sheísmo /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ] → [ʃ] /ʎ/, /ʝ/ → [ʒ] → [ʃ] / ___ [ʃ] not as common as in Buenos Aires Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] when preconsonantal /s/ → [h] / ___C except in careful speech Velarización de /n/ /n/ → [ŋ] when word-final /n/ → [ŋ] / ___# uniformly Elisión de oclusiva dental sonora /d/ → [∅] when intervocalic /d/ → [∅] / V___V frequently, in all registers Preservación de /x/ /x/ = [x] /x/ → [x] / ___

Venezuela

For the most part same as Caribbean.

    Desbucalización de /x/ /x/ → [h] (as in all of Colombia) /x/ → [h] / ___ Desbuccalización de /s/ /s/ → [h] or [∅] /s/ → [h] or [∅] / ___ Fusión de /r/ y /l/ en final de palabra /r/ and /l/ → [r], [l], [ʎ], or doubling of following consonant, when word final /r/ and /l/ → [r], [l], [ʎ], doubling of following consonant / ___# Elisión de oclusiva dental sonora /ado/ → ['ao] /ado/ → ['ao] / ___ Fricatización de /j/ (yeísmo) /ʎ/ → [ʝ] (yeísmo) /ʎ/ → [ʝ] / ___ cayó, calló → [kaˈjo] Velarización de /t/ en diminutivos /t/ → [k] in diminutives /t/ → [k] in diminutives momentito → [momen'tiko] also common in Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic Voseo voseo voseo Zulia and some parts of Falcón and Trujillo

Táchira, Mérida, and Trujillo

The articulation is more like highland Colombia.

    Distincción entre /s/, /l/, and /r/ /s/, /l/, and /r/ are distinguished and clearly pronounced / ___$